iran: textiles

One of a series of photo-based posts documenting a trip that my mum and I recently took to Iran. My excitement at being in that beautiful country meant that I sometimes missed the details in our guides talks, so apologies for any incorrect info or mislabeling of photos! Also, I took my old Pentax K100d with me but was unable to get more memory for it so had to use a low-quality format- I hope that doesn’t stop you from seeing the beauty that I saw everywhere…

While in Tehran, we visited the national carpet museum which houses the largest collection of Persian carpets found in Iran and possibly the world. The building was designed by the last queen of Iran, Farah Diba Pahlavi, and its flanked facade not only resembles a carpet loom but also creates shade in summer, helping to regulate the internal temperature to protect the carpets.

Carpet museum, Tehran

Carpet museum, Tehran, designed to resemble a carpet loom

Carpet loom

Carpet loom

Traditional dyetuffs used for carpet yarns

Traditional dyestuffs

It was wonderful to see samples of the dyestuffs traditionally used to dye yarns used in Persian carpets. Some of them were familiar, such as indigo, madder and cochineal, although I would have given a lot to learn the secrets of the incredibly sophisticated Iranian dyers responsible for extracting such a wide range of colours and shades from them. There were others, such as black curd or mud and unripe grapes, that I’m keen to try when the opportunity presents itself…

I learned a little about the history and tradition of Persian carpets; there are two major types, the tribal carpet and the city carpet. Tribal carpets are those woven by nomads and inhabitants of small rural villages. They are made of medium-to-coarse wool on a cotton or wool base and some, such as kilims, have a flat surface, rather than a pile formed by knots. Tribal carpets are generally considered inferior in quality to the ones made in the cities, but the materials, such as the wool and dyes used, are often of excellent quality and can result in a beautiful carpet. Because they’re often made in fairly primitive conditions, tribal carpets are not always perfectly symmetrical and often display subtle colour variations that give them a wonderful depth. The dyes used in tribal rugs are still mainly natural vegetable dyes, which adds value for the producer.

City carpets are made in workshops in towns and cities across Iran and are made from fine wool and silk on a wool or cotton base. They may contain up to 160 knots per cm2, creating a super fine pile with incredible texture and luminosity. Even excellent-quality city carpets include intentional imperfections- the old Persian proverb that says “a Persian rug is perfectly imperfect, and precisely imprecise” stems from the religious belief that God is the only perfect being and that attempting absolute perfection would be claiming the position of the Almighty. These imperfections are what give these carpets their character and authenticity.

Tribal carpets tend to have geometric designs with little detail and a limited palette of a few bright colors, while city carpets usually have more detailed, curvilinear or pictorial designs and more variation and subtlety of color. Designs are very regional, so an expert can can usually determine the origin of a rug  by analyzing the design.

Early silk carpet

Early Tree of Life silk carpet

Silk city carpet

Wool floral silk city carpet from Kerman, 1792

Detail, silk carpet

Detail, pictorial carpet

Detail, silk carpet

Detail, pictorial carpet

Stunning pattern, silk city rug

Stunning city rug

Geometric patterning on city carpet

Geometric patterning resembling the fruit from a maple

Detail of wool carpet

Detail of wool carpet with beautiful naive animals and plants

Despite the finesse and sophistication of the city carpets, my very favourite carpet in the museum was this incredible tribal carpet… it depicts the Persian pairi-daeza or garden, built around the central water channels and acting as an oasis for plants and birds, life of all kinds. The shades from madder and indigo are beautiful and the delicacy of the patternwork is completely captivating…

Stunning tribal rug reflecting the Persian garden or paradise

Stunning tribal rug reflecting the Persian garden or paradise

It is said that Iranians are born on carpets, live on carpets and die on carpets. I would have loved to be invited into some homes to see carpets in a domestic setting but we witnessed their central role in many other aspects of Iranian life during our travels…

Carpet in the Shah's summer palace, northern Tehran

Carpet in the Shah’s summer palace, northern Tehran

Rugs airing, Golestan Palce, Tehran

Tribal rugs airing, Golestan Palce, Tehran

A good use for a carpet!

A good use for a carpet!

Carpets on garden seats

Carpets left upside-down on garden seats, awaiting evening visitors

Carpets in the Pink Mosque, Shiraz

Carpets in the Pink Mosque, Shiraz

As a knitter, I always hope to see some evidence of a local knitting culture wherever I go… on this trip, however, I wasn’t expecting to see much- and indeed I didn’t! This must have been partly to do with the time of year but really, knitting is not part of the Iranian textile culture. Communities that raise sheep and other fibre-producing animals tend to develop either weaving, knitting or felting as a way of using that fibre to keep warm, and Iran took the weaving path… However, on our last day in Iran, we visited Jolfa, the Armenian quarter of Esfahan and, there, my prayers were answered! Over 150,000 Armenians fleeing persecution from the Ottoman Empire were moved here by force by Shah Abbasi in 1606; they were famous for being skillful craftsmen and it was hoped that they would further add to the beauty of the Persian empire. In the Armenian Vank cathedral, I saw this beautiful crocheted alter cloth…

Fine crochet altar cloth

Fine crocheted altar cloth

And then in the museum, very fine colourwork knitted socks! Just when I really needed another knitters’ arm to squeeze in excitement, I realized that Mum (who incidentally knits beautiful socks and, it turned out later, had missed these beauties!) had already left the building. So I soaked up the beauty on my own…

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Fine silk knitted socks, 19th century Armenia

Very fine, knitted socks, Armenia

Very fine, knitted socks, Armenia

I found the museum a very moving place. It holds relics of a time past and a people hugely changed since this earlier group of Armenians fled their homelands. Amongst its treasures are a historic printing press and the first book printed in Iran, Christian vestments, prayer books, chalices and other sacramental artifacts, tapestries, embroidery and carpets and an extensive display of photographs, maps, and Turkish documents related to the 1915 Armenian Genocide in Turkey.

Fine woven silk with delicate paisley design

Fine woven silk

Armenian knotted wool carpet

Armenian knotted wool carpet

I hoped that I’d find some fabric to bring home as a memento of our trip but it wasn’t until Esfahan, where our guide took us to a block-printing workshop, that I found my treasured piece. It is an old and very fine piece of cotton that has been block-printed and hand-painted in the kalamkari style that fused Indian and Persian techniques and design and used indigo, madder and other natural dyes.

Block-printed cotton

Block-printed cotton

I pored over many beautiful pieces but this one really spoke to me… it wasn’t as perfectly printed as some of the others and there’s quite a lot going on in it- almost too much… but I think that’s what I like about it. Perhaps the person who made it was still learning to balance design elements- or perhaps was just very enthusiastic! But I mostly chose it because it encompasses so many of the symbols and imagery that I saw in the Persian art that we saw (whether tilework, carpet-weaving, painting or other) and so acts as a lovely reminder of our trip.

Pomegranate

Pomegranate, representing fertility

Peacock, symbolizing royalty

Peacock, symbolizing royalty

Tiger- look at his handsome eyelashes!

Tiger and gazelle, perhaps symbolizing the victory of spring over winter- and look at the tigers lush eyelashes!

Pattern

Mountain, reminds me of our travels alongside the Zagros

Twirling vines

Twirling vines, representing nature and growth

Cypress

Cypress, representing immortality

It’s such a joy to look at it as I work in my room- so many happy memories!

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5 Responses to iran: textiles

  1. What an amazing trip this must have been! Thank you for enlightening us on the textile history of a part of the world very few of us will ever visit, and know very little of… The Persian culture is so old, and while we Scandinavians were running around being savages (..ok, that was to put it simple…), the Persians had already formed “high-culture” on education, science, agriculture, city-planning and art, etc. I had to do the maths on the knots per square cm. That´s 12,5 times 12,5 knots! What strikes me the most about that fact is the time it must have taken…
    I´m returning to my knitting now, and I´ll knit through all the hard bits without being challenged by tv or internet for the rest of the day, I think…

  2. sooz says:

    Thank you – a lot of oohs and aahs over here. A very well rounded and put together post – quite aside from the stunning content!

    Also you are welcome to take my tiny and non edible but lovely darkly coloured ‘grapettes’ from the vine if they might make dye?

  3. Kieran says:

    Wow, what incredible works of art! I never think of Iran as being a place of interest. It’s a shame that the media here and politics have created such fear. What a fantastic opportunity to experience such an interesting culture.

  4. needleandspindle says:

    Extraordinary textiles! Thanks so much for sharing these.

  5. kgirlknits says:

    you could just get lost in those patterns, couldn’t you? so lovely, thank you for sharing here. Enjoy them sharing your workspace, both physically and mentally :)

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